PUBLISHED

January 2017

AUTHOR

Lindsay B. Baker, PhD

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TOPICS

SSE #109

Is There a Need for Protein Ingestion During Exercise?

Allowing muscle protein synthesis rates to increase during exercise training may facilitate the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training and improve training efficiency.

Luc J.C. van Loon, PhD

January 2013

Topics: Training & Performance, Protein

SSE #108

Multiple Transportable Carbohydrates and Their Benefits

During moderate intensity exercise carbohydrate and fat are the two important fuels and their relative contribution is dependent on a number of factors including the pre-exercise carbohydrate stores, the exercise intensity and duration and the training status of the subject (Jeukendrup, 2003).

Asker E. Jeukendrup, PhD

January 2013

Topics: Carbohydrate

SSE #107

Protein Consumption and Resistance Exercise: Maximizing Anabolic Potential

The processes of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB) occur concurrently. This constant protein turnover allows the muscle fiber to change its protein structure if loading demands or diet changes. The plasticity of skeletal muscle to respond to altered loading and contractile patterns is evidence of the capacity for remodeling that a fiber can undergo. It is quite well documented for example that mitochondrial content increases with endurance-type work.

Stuart M. Phillips, PhD

January 2013

Topics: Body Composition, Protein

SSE #106

SSE #97

Hydration Assessment of Athletes

This article reviews several clinical hydration assessment techniques for\r\ndetecting changes in hydration status, provides criteria for the most\r\naccurate and reliable methods, and offers application guidance for athletes\r\nand coaches. The most common assessment techniques include total body\r\nwater, plasma osmolality, urine osmolality and body mass. Plasma\r\nosmolality\r\nand total body water measurements are the best ways to assess fluid needs\r\nbut are technically difficult and not very practical. A more practical way\r\nfor athletes to monitor fluid needs is to 1) assess day-to-day body weight,\r\n2) monitor urine frequency and color and 3) pay attention to thirst.\r\nMaintaining a stable body weight, frequent, pale urination and occasional\r\nthirst are all indications of good body fluid balance. While any one of\r\nthese can be a sufficient monitor, attention to all three will provide\r\nbetter assurance for hydration status.

Samuel N. Cheuvront, Ph.D., Michael N. Sawka, Ph.D. FACSM

October 2006

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #96

Herbs and Athletes

Although there is insufficient high-quality research to support the claims, there are many herbs marketed to help athletes achieve their goals. More research on herbs, health, and athletic performance is needed to better assess efficacy and safety. This article includes a table that highlights many of the herbs athletes may be interested in using with claimed benefits and examples of safety concerns. Sports professionals working with athletes can serve as sound resources for helping athletes find reputable information about herbs.

Susan Kundrat, MS, RD, LDN

October 2006

Topics: Supplements

SSE #95

Collapse in the Endurance Athlete

Collapse is perhaps the most dramatic of all medical problems affecting athletes. Though collapse can be seen in any athletic event requiring maximal exertion, it is most common in endurance events, such as marathons and triathlons. The incidence seems to increase as the race distance, temperature, and humidity increase (OÂ’Conner et al., 2003).

Robert Sallis, MD, FACSM

October 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #94

Creatine, Carbs, and Fluids: How Important in Soccer Nutrition?

There is no persuasive evidence that creatine supplementation is beneficial to soccer play. Because most of the running in soccer is at less than maximal speed, it is unlikely that creatine supplementation would have any important benefits. However, adequate dietary carbohydrate in the days and hours before strenuous training and competition is critical to maintaining adequate glycogen level in the muscles. Also, even slight dehydration can be detrimental to impair performance in soccer.

Donald T. Kirkendall, Ph.D., FACSM

September 2006

Topics: Carbohydrate, Supplements

SSE #92

Dietary Water and Sodium Requirements For Active Adults

Optimal hydration requires the replacement of water and electrolytes based on individual needs. Physically active people who lose more than 2 liters of sweat in a day should make sure they are ingesting adequate amounts of water and salt.

W. Larry Kenney, Ph.D., FACSM

September 2006

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #91

Scientifically Debatable: Is Creatine Worth Its Weight

Creatine is a commonly used supplement that could potentially benefit short high-intensity exercise or improve response to resistance exercise training. However, the performance and metabolic response to creatine ingestion is varied. Those starting with low muscle creatine levels are more likely to but don't always have the best response. Since creatine supplementation boosts performance in some individuals and not others, this could be construed as unfair advantage. Many questions remain about the value of creatine supplementation for performance of various sports and about how much and when to use creatine - if it should be used at all. Evidence suggests that performance benefits resulting from creatine ingestion are predominantly observed during multiple tests lasting between 30 to 90 seconds. Also, when consumed in moderate doses, there seems to be no adverse effects of creatine supplementation in healthy adults.

Eric S. Rawson, Ph.D., Priscilla M. Clarkson, Ph.D.

September 2006

Topics: Supplements

SSE #90

Diabetes, Exercise and Competitive Sports

Regular exercise is highly recommended for many people who have either Type 1 DM or Type 2 DM diabetes. During exercise there is a rapid uptake of glucose from the blood and people with diabetes must adjust their pre-exercise insulin dosage and carbohydrate intake, before, during and after exercise. The benefits of regular exercise in people with diabetes are similar to those in persons without the disease as long as the diabetic is in good glucose control and has no major complications of the disease.

Peter A. Farrell, Ph.D.

September 2006

Topics:

SSE #89

The Juvenile Obesity Epidemic: Strike Back with Physical Activity

The last three decades have seen a dramatic surge in prevalence of children and adolescent obesity in many developed and underdeveloped countries. Even though the causes of this epidemic are not clear, the reduction in time spent in physical activity and the increase in sedentary pursuits such as TV viewing and computer games are likely contributing factors.

\r\n\r\nProper management of juvenile obesity should include nutritional changes, behavior modification and a physically active lifestyle.

Oded Bar-Or, M.D.

September 2006

Topics: Sports Nutrition, Athlete Health

SSE #88

Hyponatremia in Athletes

Hyponatremia is a rare disorder that results from a combination of abnormal water retention and/or sodium loss. Water retention can occur from excessive water retention by the kidneys or from drinking too much water. A combination of excessive drinking and salt loss reduces plasma sodium concentration. This can prompt a cascade of events that might result in a rapid and dangerous swelling of the brain that could cause seizures, coma, and even death.

The risk of hyponatremia can be reduced by making certain that fluid intake does not exceed sweat loss and by ingesting sodium containing beverages or foods to help replace the sodium lost in sweat.

Bob Murray, John Stofan, E. Randy Eichner

September 2006

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #86

Heat Stroke in Sports: Causes, Prevention and Treatment

Heat stroke is typically caused by a combination of environmental, physical, and behavioral factors. Dr. Eichner summarizes the causes that contribute to this illness, its treatment, and also the preventive measures to protect the athletes. Heat stroke is very serious. Preventing this illness involves acclimation, hydration, pacing, cooling and vigilance. It is important to recognize its early symptoms and to provide fast and effective treatment. Cooling the athlete is the first priority before transporting to the emergency room. This can save lives.

E. Randy Eichner, M.D.

September 2006

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #85

Exercise, Antioxidants, and Cardioprotection

Exercise, Antioxidants and Cardioprotection Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death in the United States. Regular exercise and dietary intake of adequate nutritional antioxidants are lifestyle factors that can provide protection against this threat. Dr. Scott Powers's review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the cardioprotective effects of both exercise and dietary antioxidants.

Scott K. Powers, Ph.D., Ed.D.

August 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #82

Optimizing Bone Health: Impact of Nutrition, Exercise, and Hormones

Osteoporosis is a preventable condition, but the fact is that too few Americans (men and women) ingest enough calcium or exercise enough to\r\nprevent it. Everyone should try to maximize peak bone mass by age 30 and attempt to slow the rate of loss afterwards. The latest research on osteoporosis, exercise to maximize peak bone mass, and the role of calcium intake are issues addressed in this article by Dr. Susan Bloomfield

Susan A. Bloomfield, Ph.D.

August 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #81

Anemia And Blood Boosting

Various aspects of anemia and its relation to sport are explored in this article by Dr. Randy Eichner. The use of EPO for blood boosting is also covered. Tips on how to get more iron into the diet and conditions associated with low dietary iron are listed in the supplement.

E. Randy Eichner, M.D.

August 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #80

Carbohydrates, Hormones, and Endurance Performance

Strenuous prolonged exercise causes a decrease in blood glucose and a corresponding increase in concentrations of the glucoregulatory hormones. At the same time blood insulin levels fall. Carbohydrate ingestion during endurance exercise blunts these hormonal alterations and can help spare muscle glycogen, maintain blood glucose and therby delaying fatigue.

J. Mark Davis, Ph.D., Adrienne S. Brown, M.A.

August 2006

Topics: Carbohydrate, Training & Performance

SSE #79

Dietary Carbohydrate & Performance of Brief, Intense Exercise

How beneficial is dietary carbohydrate when your sport consists of short repeated bursts of high power? Studies examining resistance exercise, single and repeated sprints, and the role of carbohydrate as a fuel are contained in this latest publication. The supplement includes a formula to calculate your personal carbohydrate needs, instructions for analyzing your own diet, and a table illustrating the carbohydrate content of common foods.

Janet Walberg-Rankin, Ph.D.

August 2006

Topics: Carbohydrate, Training & Performance

SSE #77

Nutrition For Child And Adolescent Athletes

Dr. Oded Bar-Or discusses the physiological differences between children, adolescents and adults in this latest article. Protein requirements, fluid and electrolyte requirements and recommendations for optimal nutrition are provided in the article and supplement.

Oded Bar-Or, M.D.

August 2006

Topics: Sports Nutrition, Athlete Health

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